RNA is the original molecular form of life on earth. In the central dogma of modern life science, RNA is the transmitter and important regulator of the expression of genetic information. In addition to messenger RNA (mRNA) that encodes proteins, there are also many non-coding RNAs of different types and functions. These non-coding RNAs, which were once considered to be the "dark matter" of life, regulate important life activities in multiple dimensions, continuously innovate our understanding of the basic laws of life in breadth and depth, and have become the fastest growing research field in the world.

         In addition to the diversity of types and functions, multi-dimensional RNA regulation is also reflected in the multi-level and complexity of RNA structure and temporal and spatial distribution. RNA can form complex secondary and high-level structures based on its sequence (primary structure). At the same time, there are abundant chemical modifications on RNA, which are not only diverse, but also dynamic and reversible. From the perspective of time and space, different RNAs can be dynamically generated and distributed in various non-membrane organelles, cells, tissues and organs, and can move and function between different cells, tissues and organs. Multi-dimensional RNA regulation is a key part of constructing the regulation network of life.

         The study of multi-dimensional RNA regulation mechanism has greatly promoted the development of RNA-based biomedical technology, and has brought disease diagnosis and treatment to a new stage. In the past ten years, from RNA interference to specific RNA editing and manipulation technology, to the recent mRNA vaccine technology that has shined in the coronavirus vaccine, all are important breakthroughs leading new directions. At the same time, non-coding RNA, as a new genetic resource, provides new ideas and methods for crop molecular improvement. In addition, the outbreak of new RNA viruses (including SARS, SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses) has posed great challenges and threats to human life and health and global public health security, highlighting the basic theories and applied technology of RNA.